Monday, July 19, 2010

A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar -part 7


How Crisnarao, after he had made peace with the King of Oria,
determined to go against the land of Catuir.

After Crisnarao had made peace, and had married the daughter of the
King of Oria, and had restored to him his wife and the lands beyond
the river, as has been narrated above, he made ready a large army
and prepared to attack Catuir,[526] which is the land of a lord who
had been in revolt for fifty years; this land is on the Charamaodel
side. And he went against it, and laid siege to one of the principal
cities where the lord of the land was; and it is called ...[527]and
is surrounded with water.

Now at the time when Crisnarao attacked this city it was winter, for
which cause the river that surrounded it was so swollen, and carried
down so much water, that the king could do no harm to the place. And
King Crisnarao, seeing this, and seeing that time was passing away
without his attaining his desire, commanded his men to cut many new
channels in order to be able to attack that principal (river) which
had opposed itself to the fulfilment of his wishes. And this was
done in a short time, since he had many soldiers; and after the (new)
watercourses were finished and brought to where the water should go
he opened mouths in the river, the water of which very soon flowed
out so that the bottom could be seen, and it was left so shallow
that it enabled him to reach the walls of the city; and the river
was thus diverted into fifty different beds. Inside the city were
one hundred thousand foot-soldiers and three thousand cavalry, who
defended themselves and fought very bravely, but this availed little
to prevent Crisnarao from entering in a few days and slaughtering
all of them. He found large treasures in this city, amongst others
in ready money a million and six hundred thousand golden PARDAOS,
besides jewels, and horses, which were numerous, and elephants. And
after he had finished the capture of this land Crisnarao divided it
amongst many of his captains, giving to each one what was necessary
for him; and the chief who lived in the city and who was lord of the
land was taken away captive and carried to Bisnaga, where he died in
the King's prison.

And after the King had settled the country he came to Bisnaga, whence
he sent Salvatinea to the city of Comdovy, since he was chief of it,
by whom his brother was placed in it so as to see directly to the
land and ifs government; for after the King returned from Orya he
never went again thither.

And Salvatinea, having departed on his journey to Comdovy, before he
arrived there, met, opposing his path, a Muhammadan named Madarmeluquo,
who was a captain of the King on this side,[528] and who was awaiting
him with sixty thousand men. Salvatinea had two hundred thousand men,
and had very little fear of him; and with these he went against him,
and took and defeated him, and took prisoners himself and his wife
and son and horses and elephants and much money and store of jewels,
and sent them all to King Crisnarao. The king commanded to put (the
captives) in prison, and there they died. And Sallvatinea went to
his territories, and after he had stayed there some months and seen
to its government and decided matters in dispute, he returned to the
King at Bisnaga, by whom he was well received as being the principal
person in the kingdom.


How Crisnarao, on the arrival of Salvatinia, determined to attack
Rachol, a city of the Ydalcao, and to break the peace that had lasted
so long; and the reason why.

After Salvatinia had arrived and had been well received by the King,
and after the lapse of some days, the King told him that he desired
to fulfil all the wishes expressed in the testament of King Narsynga,
one of which was to capture Rachol, which was a very strong city and
amongst the principal ones of the Ydallcao, who had taken it from
the kings his ancestors; and because there was now peace between
both parties, and had been so for forty years, he knew not how he
could manage to break it. But Salvatinia said that since the peace
had been made under certain conditions -- one of which was that if
on either one side or the other any land-owners, captains in revolt,
or other evil-doers should be harboured and their surrender should
be demanded, they should forthwith be given up -- there was now great
reason for breaking the peace, since many land-owners and debtors to
His Highness had tied into the kingdom of the Ydallcao. He counselled
therefore that the King should send to demand the surrender of
these men, and that on refusal to give them up there would be good
ground for breaking the peace. Many, however, disagreed with this
advice. Now it happened at this time that the King (of Bisnaga)
sent Cide Mercar with forty thousand PARDAOS to Goa to buy horses,
which Cide Mercar was a Moor in whom the King of Bisnaga confided on
account of various affairs with which he had already been entrusted;
and this man, when he arrived at a place where the Moors lived which
was called, Pomdaa and is two leagues from Goa, fled from that place,
Pomdaa, to the Ydallcao, carrying with him all the treasure. Some say
that the Ydallcao wrote to him a letter as soon as he got there. As
soon as they gave to the King this news of the flight of Cide, and
how he had carried off all the money, he said that he would write to
the Ydallcao to send the man back to him with all the money, since he
was his friend. Then the King caused a letter to be written, in which
he spoke of the friendship that had existed for so many years so that
nothing could shake it, and that he hoped that a traitor would not
be the cause of breaking a peace of such long standing as had been
between them; and he begged that he would send Cide back at once.

As soon as the letter was read to the Ydallcao he sent to summon his
kazis and the men of his council, and he bade them read the letter
which had come from the King, as to which letter there were many
suggestions made. At the end of all they agreed that he should not
send him (Cide) to him (the King of Bisnaga), for they said that he
(Cide) was one learned in the law and related to Mafumdo.[529] And the
Ydallcao, as a cloak to his action, gave Dabull to that Cide, by way
of showing that he was not near his person nor knew he aught of him;
from which town of Dabull Cide fled, nor had they any further news
of him. When those who had come from the King returned bearing the
Ydallcao's answer, the King showed great indignation at it, and held
that the peace was broken; he at once ordered to appear before him the
great lords of his Council, and had the letter read aloud so that all
might hear. As soon as it was read he said that without more ado they
should make ready, since he was determined to take full vengeance. But
the councillors advised the King, saying that for such a small sum
of money as this it was not well so to act; that he should think of
what would be said and talked of throughout the world; and that if he
was bent on breaking so prolonged a peace for such a trifling cause,
he should call to mind that there never was any honesty in a Moor;
that others were to blame in that which Cide had done; and that if
Cide should dare to come to that war which was waged in order to
take vengeance on him,[530] then it would be well that those who
accompanied him should die, but that they knew that Cide would keep
well away from the army.[531]

The councillors, however, saw that the King remained unmoved from his
determination to make war, and they then counselled him, saying: --
"Sire, do not go to war by that route (Dabull), but go against Rachol,
which now belongs to the Ydallcao but of old was part of this kingdom;
then the Ydallcao will be forced to come to defend it, and thus thou
wilt take vengeance jointly both on one and the other." The King
held this advice to be good and prepared for his departure, sending
letters to Madre Maluco, and Demellyno, and Desturvirido,[532] and
other superior lords, giving them an account of what had taken place
in the matter of the Ydallcao, and how he had determined to make war
on him; from which lords he received answer that he was doing rightly,
and that they would assist him as far as they were able. As to the
Zemelluco, at the time when the messengers returned this answer he
could find no excuse for not sending some troops to the aid of his
sister who was wedded to the Ydallcao.

The King had sent the letters to those lords out of his great
craftiness, for he told them of what he was about to do in order
to seduce them to his side, -- so far at least as concerned their
goodwill, seeing that in the matter of troops he had no need of
them -- because if they had joined the Ydallcao he (the King) would
never have conquered as he did; but because the Ydallcao was hated
by them all as being a more powerful chief than they, (for there is
little faith amongst the Moors, and they bite one another like dogs
and like to see one after the other destroyed) he was conquered,
as you will see hereafter, in the month of May, on the new moon day,
in the year one thousand five hundred and twenty-two.[533]

After the King had made his offerings and performed sacrifices to
his idols he left the city of Bisnaga with all his troops; and they
marched in the following order. The chief of the guard (O PORTEIRO
MOOR)[534] led the advance with thirty thousand infantry -- archers,
men with shields, and musqueteers, and spearmen -- and a thousand
horse and his[535] elephants. After him went Trimbicara with fifty
thousand foot and two thousand horse and twenty elephants. After him
went Timapanayque; he had with him sixty thousand foot and three
thousand five hundred horse and thirty elephants; and after him
went Adapanayque with one hundred thousand foot and five thousand
horse and fifty elephants. After him came Comdamara,[536] and he had
one hundred and twenty thousand foot six thousand horse and sixty
elephants; after him went Comara, and he had eighty thousand foot and
of horse two thousand five hundred, and forty elephants; after him the
forces of Ogemdraho,[537] the governor of the city of Bisnaga, with
one of his captains, who had one thousand horse and thirty thousand
foot and ten elephants. After him went three eunuchs, favourites of
the King, who had forty thousand foot and one thousand horse and
fifteen elephants. The page who served the King with betel[538]
had fifteen thousand foot and two hundred horse, but he had no
elephants. Comarberca[539] had eight thousand foot and four hundred
horse and twenty elephants. The people of the chief of Bengapor[540]
went by another route with the people of Domar, who were very numerous;
and in the same way went other captains of ten or twelve thousand men,
of whom I make no mention, not knowing their names. The King took of
his guard six thousand horse and forty thousand foot, the pick of all
his kingdom, men with shields, archers, and three hundred elephants.

All were equally well armed, each after his own fashion, the archers
and musqueteers with their quilted tunics,[541] and the shieldmen
with their swords and poignards[542] in their girdles; the shields
are so large that there is no need for armour to protect the body,
which is completely covered; the horses in full clothing, and the
men with doublets,[543] and weapons in their hands, and on their
heads headpieces after the manner of their doublets, quilted with
cotton. The war-elephants go with their howdahs (CASTELLOS) from
which four men fight on each side of them, and the elephants are
completely clothed, and on their tusks they have knives fastened,
much ground and sharpened, with which they do great harm. Several
cannon were also taken. I do not speak here of the washermen, who are
numberless here -- they wash clothes -- nor of the public women who
accompanied the army; there were twenty thousand of them with the king
during his journey. Any one can imagine the amount of baggage that
such a large number of people would take. In the rear with the king,
but always on the road in front of him, some ten or twelve thousand
men with water-skins who go seeking water, and place themselves along
the road to give water to those who have no one to bring it to them;
this is done so that none of the people should die of thirst. Three
or four leagues in front of all this multitude go some fifty thousand
men who are like scouts; they have to spy out the country in front,
and always keep that distance; and on their flanks there are two
thousand horse of the cavalry of that country. These are all bowmen,
and they always advance on the flanks of the scouts.

In this order, as I have stated, they left the city of Bisnaga, and
with them a great number of merchants, besides many others who were
already in advance with all supplies; so that wherever you may be you
will at once find all you want. Every captain has his merchants who
are compelled to give him all supplies requisite for all his people,
and in the same way they carry all other necessaries

According to the King's custom, when he wishes to lie down and sleep,
they make for him a hedge of brush-wood and of thorns behind which
his tent is pitched, which was done for him all along this route;
on which route was seen a wonderful thing, namely that on passing
a river which, when they reached it, came half-way up to the knee,
before half the people had passed it was totally dry without a drop
of water; and they went about in the sand of it making pits to find
some water. In this order the King proceeded till he arrived at the
town of Mollabamdym,[544] which is a league from the city of Rachol,
where he pitched his camp so as to give a rest to the people after
the fatigues of the march.

And the King being in the city of Mollabamdyn, settling all that was
necessary for the siege of Rachol, there came to him people of the King
of Bisnaga, and the people of Domaar, and also many other captains with
an infinitude of people. As soon as they had joined and everything was
put in order, and after his Brahmans had finished their ceremonies
and sacrifices, they told the King that it was now time, that the
pagodas had given sign of conquest, and that he should advance.

Then he sent the Moors in the royal service to lead the van, and
Camanayque, the chief of the guard, pitched the camp very near the
ditches of the city of Rachol, and every captain halted his people
according to the commands given. The people of the City received
them with many shots from heavy cannon that they had, and from many
firelocks, and many arrows and musket-shots, so that those of the
besiegers who arrived close to the ditches suffered heavily and wanted
to retreat. But the King would not permit this, saying that he would
not have sent them there were it not that he would soon effect an
entry into the city, and if not, that they should all die; wherefore
his men were compelled to attack the city, and did so in many brave
and severe fights. In these many of them lost their lives, since
those of the city were in very strong position and well acquainted
with everything that was necessary for their defence, while the
King's troops never ceased their attacks on the city. The captains,
seeing how badly the attack was going in consequence of the number
of soldiers killed, had recourse to lavish gifts and stratagems,
as thus: -- They began to buy (from the soldiers) the stones which
they took from the walls and towers, and they paid them according to
the value of the stone; so that the stones were worth ten, twenty,
thirty, forty, and fifty FANAMS.[545] By this device they contrived
to dismantle the wall in many places, and laid the city open; but
since the city was in itself so strong, and the soldiers who were
in it were such chosen men and so used to warfare, they killed many
of the King's people. Yet not for that did they cease fighting, but
every day and at every attack they became bolder, in consequence of
their greed for what the captains gave them, for the money had the
power of taking from them the terror of death which had inspired them
before. They also gave them something for dragging away a dead man
from the foot of the wall. So the fight dragged on for a space of
three months till the Ydallcao came up with reinforcements.

Now I wish you to know more of the situation, and of the city, and
the people which it held. This city of Rachol lies between two great
rivers, and in the midst of a great plain where there are no trees
except very small ones, and there are great boulders there; from
each river to the city is three leagues. One of these rivers is the
northern boundary, and beyond it the country belongs to the Ydallcao,
and the other is the boundary to the south which is the boundary of
Narsymga. This plain lies in the middle of these two rivers, and there
are large lakes therein and wells and some little streams where the
city is situated, and a hill which looks like a woman's breast and
is of natural formation. The city has three lines of strong walls
of heavy masonry made without lime; the walls are packed with earth
inside, and it has on the highest point a fortress like a tower, very
high and strong; at the top where the fortress stands is a spring
of water which runs all the year round. It is held to be a holy and
mysterious thing that a spring which is in a lofty situation should
in some way never be without water. Besides this spring there are
several tanks of water and wells, so that the citizens had no fear
of being ever taken for lack of water; and there were in the city
supplies for five years. There were eight thousand men as garrison
and four hundred horse and twenty elephants, and thirty catapults
(TRABUCOS) which hurled heavy stones and did great damage. The towers
which are on the walls are so close together that one can hear words
spoken from one to the other. Between these and all around they
posted their artillery, which consisted of two hundred heavy pieces,
not to mention small ones. As soon as the people of the city knew
of the arrival of the King's troops, and after they had received a
captain of the Ydallcao who came with some soldiers to the city, they
closed the gates with stone and mortar. The chief fight which takes
place is on the east side, because on the north and south sides it
stands on huge rocks which make it very strong; and, the city being
besieged on all sides, the camp of the King was on the east side,
and so was the strength of the attack.


Of the manner in which the King had his camp, &c.

The tent of the King was surrounded by a great hedge of thorns with
only one entrance, and with a gate at which stood his guards. Inside
this hedge lodged the Brahman who washes him and has charge of the
idol that he always carries about with him, and also other persons
who hold offices about the King's person, and eunuchs who are always
to be found in his chamber. And outside this circle all around are
his guards, who watch all night at fixed spots; with this guard are
quartered the officers of the household; and from thence to the front
were all the other captains in their appointed posts, according as
each one was entrusted and ordered. Outside of all these people, in
a camp by themselves, were the scouts of whom I have already spoken,
whose duty it is to patrol all night through the camp and watch to
see if they can catch any spies. On the other side the washermen,
(who are those that wash clothes) were in a camp by themselves,
and they were near to the place where they could best wash clothes.

All the camp was divided into regular streets. Each captain's division
has its market, where you found all kinds of meat, such as sheep,
goats, pigs, fowls, hares, partridges and other birds, and this
in great abundance; so much so that it would seem as if you were
in the city of Bisnaga. And you found many endless kinds of rice,
grains, Indian-corn, vetches (MINGUO),[546] and other seeds that they
eat. Besides these things, which are necessaries, they had another
(market) where you could find in great abundance everything that
you wanted; for in these markets they sell things that in our parts
are sold by professional hucksters.[547] There were craftsmen, also,
working in their streets, so that you saw made there golden jewels
and gewgaws, and you will find all kinds of rubies and diamonds and
pearls, with every other kind of precious stone for sale. There also
were to be seen sellers of cloths, and these were without number as
that is a thing so many want, they being of cotton. There were also
to be seen grass and straw in infinite abundance. I do not know who
could describe it so as to be believed, so barren a country is this
Rachol and so sandy. It is a mystery how there should be an abundance
of everything therein. Any one can imagine what grass and straw would
be required each day for the consumption of thirty-two thousand four
hundred horses and five hundred and fifty-one elephants,[548] to say
nothing of the sumpter-mules and asses, and the great numbers of oxen
which carry all the supplies and many other burdens, such as tents
and other things. Indeed no one who did not understand the meaning of
what he saw would ever dream that a war was going on, but would think
that he was in a prosperous city. Then to see the numbers of drums
and trumpets, and other musical instruments that they use. When they
strike up their music as sign that they are about to give battle it
would seem as if the heavens must fall; and if it happened that a bird
came flying along at the time when they made such a terrific noise,
it used to come down through terror of not being able to get clear
of the camp, and so they would catch it in their hands; principally
kites, of which they caught many.

But I cease to speak more of this because I should never finish;
and so I turn to tell of the battle.


How the King attacked the city of Rachol.

The King, being as I have said at the siege of the city of Rachol,
there came to him sure news that the Ydallcao had arrived at the river
on the northern side, and that there he had pitched his camp. The
King therefore sent his spies to keep watch over the foe, to see what
he was doing and to send word of his every movement. With the coming
of this news a tumult broke out in the camp, principally among the
common soldiers, in whose minds suspicion was never wanting, and
they still suffered under the terror inspired from old time by the
Moors. There the Ydallcao halted some days so as to see what the King
was doing and whether he would march to attack him there in his camp;
for it was thought by him and by his people that as soon as the King
should learn of his arrival he would at once march to meet him, and
they decided that he could defend himself from the King in the place
where he was better than in any other, by help of the river. For
there was no other ford than the one close at hand; and this they
proposed to guard so well that none should take it, least of all,
they thought, men who (in their eyes) were only blacks.

Although the King heard that the enemy was on the opposite bank of the
river, he yet made no move, nor did he do anything; and the Ydallcao,
seeing that he made no advance, took counsel with his officers, and
at this council the advice given greatly differed, as each had his
own opinion regarding the non-movement of the King. Many said that
this was because the King held his foe to be of little account, and
wished to show his people how great was his power; and they said that
he was only waiting for them to cross the river to at once fall upon
them. The principal person who said this was Amcostam,[549] who was
captain of Pomdaa at the time that Dom Guterre was captain of Goa.[550]
Others said no, but that the King was afraid, thinking of times past
and the many conquests that the Moors had gained over the Hindus, and
that he had brought with him some veteran soldiers that had taken part
in those wars. The advice of these was to push forward and pass the
river. It was not well (they said) for the Ydallcao to show weakness,
and the longer he stayed where he was the less would he benefit himself
and harm the enemy; and although they were not so many in number as
the Hindus, yet they had the advantage in the remembrance of the former
battles that had been fought between them.[551] In the end the Ydallcao
ordered that they should muster the forces, and said that after this
was ended he would decide what was best to be done. When the muster
was made, he found that he had one hundred and twenty thousand men
on foot, archers and musqueteers and men with shields and spearmen,
and eighteen thousand cavalry, and one hundred and fifty elephants;
and when the muster was over and he had seen his forces for himself,
seeing also the great strength of artillery that he had, he said that
with his artillery he would seek to defeat the Rao of Narsymga. He
therefore ordered them to make ready, since he desired to cross the
river at once and advance to the attack; for the Ydallcao believed
that his best course was to halt on the farther side and thence send
his troops to charge the camp of the King, and that in so doing he
would not be beaten and would not lose Rachol.[552]

In this greedy resolve he passed the ford and advanced to within
three leagues of the King's camp, and he caused his own camp to be
strengthened by large trenches, and commanded all his artillery to
take post in front, and he arranged the order of his positions and
the manner in which they should behave if they were attacked by the
enemy. His camp extended along the length of the river for the sake
of the water, that he might not be cut off from it by the enemy.

As soon as they brought news to the King that the Ydallcao had passed
the river, he commanded all to make ready, but that no movement should
take place in his army till he should see how the enemy acted; and
when they brought him further news that the enemy had pitched his camp
and strengthened his position, he ordered a general advance of all his
forces. He divided his army into seven wings. Comarberya[553] begged
from him (the command) of the van, he being the king's father-in-law
and a great lord; he is King of Serigapatao and lord of a large state;
he brought with him thirty grown-up sons. The King bade him pitch his
camp a league from the Ydallcao and ordered all to arm themselves at
dawn, as he intended then to give battle to the enemy; but the men
of the Council said that that day was an unlucky day, and begged him
not to attack, as it was a Friday, and they asked him not to attack
till Saturday, which they hold for a lucky day.

When the King had left Rachol, those inside opened a gate, and one of
the captains who was inside, a eunuch, made a sally with two hundred
horse, certain foot-soldiers and elephants; he kept entirely along the
river-bank on the King's flank. The object of this no one could guess,
each one having his own opinion. As soon as the King halted he also
did the same, keeping always his spies in the King's camp to see what
passed and (what would be) the end of the battle. Since both armies
were so close, each to his foe, they never put aside their weapons
but watched all the night through.

Seeing that the dawn of Saturday was now breaking, the drums and
trumpets and other music in the King's camp began to sound and the
men to shout, so that it seemed as if the sky would fall to the earth;
then the neighing and excitement of the horses, and the trumpeting of
the elephants, it is impossible for any one to describe how it was. But
even if told in simple truth it would hardly be believed the great fear
and terror that struck those who heard it, so that even those very
men that caused the noise were themselves frightened at it. And the
enemy on their part made no less noise, so that if you asked anything
you could not hear yourself speak and you had to ask by signs, since
in no other manner could you make yourself understood. When all in the
camp had gone to the front it was already two hours after sunrise, and
the King ordered an advance of his two forward divisions, with command
so to strike home that they should leave not one of the enemy alive;
and this was forthwith done. They attacked the enemy so hotly that many
of the King's troops found themselves on the tops of the trenches[554]
that the Moors had constructed in the fields. The Moors were disposed
as if they expected that the King would engage them all at once
with all his forces, and so it appeared to the Ydallcao and to his
officers; and for that reason he held ready all his artillery, waiting
for the time when, owing to the adventurousness of their main body,
his men must of necessity cause much slaughter in their ranks. Then
he intended to bring up his artillery and destroy them. But as soon
as he saw the manner of their attack the Ydallcao had to abandon the
plan that had seemed to him best for their safety, and he commended
the whole of the artillery at once to open fire; which discharge,
as it was very great, did much damage to the enemy, killing many of
the horse and foot and many elephants, and it compelled the King's
troops to retire. As soon as the Moors saw their enemies beginning to
leave the field they charged all amongst them, so that there did not
remain one man in the saddle nor one who kept his face to the foe;
but all the King's troops began to fly, and the Moors after them,
slaughtering them for about half a league. When the King saw the way
in which his troops fled he began to cry out that they were traitors,
and that he would see who was his side; and that since they all had
to die they should meet their fate boldly according to custom.[555]
"Who ranges himself with me?" he cried. Immediately there thronged
about him all those lords and captains that were ready to side with
him, and the King said that the day had arrived in which the Ydallcao
would boast that he had slain in it the greatest lord in the world,
but that he should never boast that he had vanquished him. Then he
took a ring from his finger and gave it to one of his pages, so that
he might show it to his queens in token of his death, that they might
burn themselves according to custom. Then he mounted a horse and
moved forward with all his remaining-divisions, commanding to slay
without mercy every man of those who had fled. As soon as these last
saw what a reception they received at the hand of their fellows they
felt compelled to turn and charge the enemy, and their attack was
such that not one amongst the Moors was found to face them; for the
Moors met them as men engaged in a pursuit, all in great disorder. The
confusion was so great amongst the Moors and such havoc was wrought
(in their ranks) that they did not even try to defend the camp they
had made so strong and enclosed so well; but like lost men they leaped
into the river to save themselves. Then after them came large numbers
of the King's troops and elephants, which latter worked amongst them
mischief without end, for they seized men with their trunks and tore
them into small pieces, whilst those who rode in the castles (howdahs)
killed countless numbers.

The troops advanced thus, pursuing the foe, till the King reached
the river, where, seeing the death of so many -- for here you would
see women and boys who had left the camp, there horses and men who
through clinging one to another could not escape as there was so much
water in the river -- and the King's troops stood on the bank, so that
whenever a man appeared he was killed, and the horses that tried to
clamber up by the bank of the river, unable to do so, fell back on
the men, so that neither one nor the other escaped, and the elephants
went into the stream, and those that they could seize were cruelly
killed by them. Seeing what passed, I say, the King out of compassion
commanded the troops to retire, saying that numbers had died who did
not deserve death nor were at all in fault; which order was at once
obeyed by all the captains, so that each one withdrew all his forces.

The King then advanced to the camp of the Ydallcao and rested himself
in his tent, but many of the captains spoke against his action in thus
taking repose, saying that he ought rather to complete the destruction
of all his enemies, and they would secure this for him; and that if
he did not wish himself to do this he should at least command some
of them to do it, and that it was not wise to cease from pursuit so
long as daylight should last. To whom the King answered that many had
died who were not to blame; that if the Ydallcao had done him wrong,
he had already suffered enough; and moreover, that it did not seem to
him good, since Rachol remained behind them to be taken, that they
should go forward, but rather they should make themselves ready for
its capture; for that the siege had to be conducted henceforth in a
new and better manner. For the King was persuaded throughout that,
since the Ydallcao had lost so many men and so much honour, and had
lost indeed all his power, he would not wish to live any longer, and
that he must be dead on the field. Which, however, was not so, seeing
that the Ydallcao had not even entered into the fight, but had all
the time remained under guard of Sefallarym[556] -- he who now calls
himself Acadacao and is lord of Belgaum -- who, fearing the event,
contrived by cunning that the Ydallcao should select him for his
guard with all his troops, among whom he had four hundred cavalry;
and when he saw how the soldiers fled, and how completely they had
been defeated, he said to the Ydallcao, "Sire, if thou seekest to live
follow me!" and the Ydallcao took refuge on an elephant and followed
him, leaving his camp and all that he possessed. And as Acadacao wished
him to travel by land,[557] he took no care to search for the ford,
but skirting the range of hills on the south he went by that way.[558]

As it may be asked what became of the captain who sallied out of
Rachol with the two hundred horsemen and elephants and foot-soldiers,
I say that he ever kept himself advised of what passed in the field;
and as soon as he learned that the Ydallcao was defeated he turned
back to take refuge again in the citadel. But those within were
not of a mind to receive him, there being a quarrel between him and
another captain who was in the city; and he, seeing that they would
not admit him, was forced to think how he could save himself, and he
did so by passing the river by another ford farther down, and so saved
himself. The belief of many was that he who was inside thought that
he would now possess the city for his own, and that he would thereby
become rich, and for that reason refused to receive the captain.


Of the spoil taken from the Moors, of how the King burned all the dead,
and of what Christovao de Figueiredo did.

The King being thus in the camp, he commanded the spoil that
remained of the Moors to be collected, and there were found five
captains who were taken prisoners (those of highest rank were found
amongst the dead); the chiefest of them was Salabatacao,[559] who
was captain-general of all the troops of the Ydallcao He had taken
for his guard in the battle five hundred Portuguese of the renegades
who were with the Moors; and as soon as this Salabatacao saw that his
army was defeated, he strove to collect and form a body of men, but
could not do it because there was not one amongst them who thought of
aught but to save himself. And thinking it worse to be conquered than
to die, he threw himself amongst the King's troops, slaughtering them,
and doing such wonderful deeds that ever after he and his Portuguese
were remembered, so much were their terrible strokes feared, and the
deeds they did; so that they let them pass on, and they penetrated
so far amongst the troops that they found themselves close to the
King's bodyguard. There the horse of Salabatacao was killed. In
order to succour him the Portuguese did great deeds and killed so
many men that they left a broad road behind them which no one dared
to enter, and they fought so well that they got another horse for
Salabatacao. As soon as he was on its back he seemed like nothing
but a furious wolf amongst sheep; but since already they were all
so exhausted, so wounded all over, and so encircled by the enemy
(for they were attacked at every point), Salabatacao was at length
overthrown, and his horse with him. And as the Portuguese who tried
to succour him were all killed, not one escaping, and he himself was
wounded in many places, he was taken prisoner.

The spoil was four thousand horses of Ormuz, and a hundred elephants,
and four hundred heavy cannon, besides small ones; the number of
gun-carriages for them was nine hundred, and there were many tents and
pavilions. I take no account of the sumpter-horses and oxen and other
beasts, for they were numberless, nor of the numbers of men and boys,
nor yet of some women, whom the King ordered to be released.

Here the King stayed till all the dead had been burned, and the
customary honours had been paid to them; and here he gave much
alms for the souls of those who had been killed in battle on his
side. These numbered sixteen thousand and odd. These things done,
he turned again upon Rachol and pitched his camp as he had done before.

During this return of the King there came to meet him Christovao
de Figueiredo,[560] who was at that time in the city of Bisnaga
with horses, and he took with him twenty Portuguese musqueteers,
he also himself having his musquet. The King took much pleasure in
his company, glad that he should see the war and his great power;
and he ordered some tents to be given to him of those taken from
the Ydallcao, and commanded that he should be lodged close to his
own quarters. One day Christovao de Figueiredo told the King that he
wanted to go and see the city, but the King said that he should not
set his heart upon that because he did not want any disaster to befall
him. But Christovao de Figueiredo replied that the whole business of
the Portuguese was war, and that this would be the greatest favour
that he could do him, namely that His Highness should permit him to
go and see the Moors. So the King gave him leave and sent some people
with him. Christovao de Figueiredo went close to the trench before
the walls, keeping himself as much concealed as possible, and seeing
how fearlessly the Moors exposed themselves on the wall, began, with
the musqueteers whom he had brought, to open fire on them in such a
way that he slew many, the Moors being careless and free from fear,
as men who up to then had never seen men killed with firearms nor with
other such weapons. So they began to forsake the wall (at this point),
and the king's troops found an opportunity of coming in safety to it,
and they began to destroy much of the masonry; and so many people
collected on this side that all the camp was put in commotion,
saying that Christovao de Figueiredo had entered the city with his
Portuguese. This was told to the King. Those in the city could not
understand what was going on, nor how these people came to be in the
King's service, until they recollected how on the day of the other
fight the Portuguese had come, and then they considered themselves
lost. For by the aid of those men the King's people came without fear
to the wall, where already it was damaged in many places, because the
city had its cannon so high up that these could do no injury to the men
who were at the foot of the wall. The wall also was filled up inside
with earth, and there were no cannon in the breaches. The people of
the city whom up to that time they had killed had been supplied with
stones which they had flung on the besiegers from the top of the wall,
and with musquets and arrows, so that even if the King's men were able
to reach the wall at all they were at least wounded; but as Christovao
de Figueiredo with the Portuguese prevented the enemy from appearing
at all on the wall, the Hindus were enabled to reach it at their ease.

Here you would have seen how the King's captains begged Christovao
de Figueiredo to permit them one day to attack the Moors in his
company, and he, in order to content the more honourable of them,
went with them on those days. One day he divided his musqueteers
into three companies and began to kill several amongst the Moors
who showed themselves, insomuch that none durst be seen; and then
the King's troops began, in these three divisions, to attack the
wall with many pickaxes and crowbars,[561] and he sent to tell the
rest that they should attack on their own account; and such was the
result that the defenders of the city began to abandon the first
line of fortification, and the women and children took refuge in the
citadel. The captain of the city, seeing the dismay that had spread
amongst his people, began to turn them back with encouraging words,
and with some of them betook himself to that part of the wall which
he saw was most severely pressed, begging them that they would come
back to the wall and not be afraid. He was answered by some that at
that point were those Franks[562] who were helping, and that as soon
as any one showed himself he was a dead man; and he, wishing to see
for himself where the Portuguese were, reached over with his body in
front one of the embrasures and was killed with a musquet-shot that
struck him in the middle of his forehead. It was said by the Moors that
Christovao de Figueyredo had killed him, and they took notice of him
(DERAO SYGNAES D ELLE). As soon as the captain was thus killed there
was great lamentation in the city, and soon the wall was deserted,
so that the men from the King's camp were left to do as they pleased
with it; and they noticed the outcry that arose within and saw that
there was no one defending the wall. They therefore retired to see
what should happen, and left off fighting for that day.

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