Monday, July 19, 2010

A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar -part 8


How those in the city asked for terms, and the king granted them

Next day, which was twenty days since the battle had taken place in
which the Ydallcao had been defeated, the men of the city opened a
gate, and with a white flag carried in front of them went the way of
the King's camp with their hands uplifted, begging the King's mercy.

When the King was advised of their coming, he commanded Solestema,[563]
his minister, to receive them; and when they saw that he came out to
receive them they began to hope that they should experience kindness
at the King's hands.

Thus they came to the place where he was, and there they prostrated
themselves on the ground with much groaning and tears, and besought
his pity and benevolence.

The King commanded them to rise, saying that he would save all their
persons and property, and that they need have no fear but should
return to the city, and that on the next day he would enter it;
and he bade a captain take possession of the city.

Whilst the Moors were thus in presence of the King (the soldiers
looking on), they saw Christovao de Figueiredo, and told the King
that the conquest and capture of the city was due to that foreigner,
that he had slain their captain, and with his people had killed many
Moors, which caused the city's destruction. The King, casting his
eyes on Christovao de Figueiredo, nodded his head, and turned to the
people telling them to observe what great things could be effected
by one good man. He then retired to his tent and the men of the city
to the city, and the king's troops made great feasting and rejoicing.


How the King entered the city, and of the feast that was made for him,
and of the regulations and arrangements he made there.

As soon as the next day dawned, the King, after he had performed both
his customary prayers and others which it is their wont to offer after
victories, giving thanks to God (for indeed the principal thing they
pray for is a conquest such as this), rode in company with the other
great lords and his captains, and with his guard took the way to the
city. There the citizens were standing awaiting his arrival, with more
cheerful countenances than their real feelings warranted, yet striving
to take courage, and they followed him with much loud shouting; crying,
-- "God be praised who has sent to save us after so many years!" and
with these and other such words they begged him to spare them and have
pity on them. So he proceeded till he arrived close to the citadel,
when he sent to call the most honoured men in the city, and to these
the King said that he would spare all their property, that they might
freely act as they wished regarding both that and their persons,
and those who wished to stay in the city might remain in their old
state as before; and as for those who wished to depart they might do
so at once with all that they possessed. They all raised their hands
to Heaven, and threw themselves on the ground in thankfulness for such
gentle treatment. While the King was thus engaged there came men to
tell him that his troops were robbing the city, and he at once tool;
measures to prevent this, and everything was returned to its owner;
but as in such cases as these the conquered are content merely with
their own liberty, laying little store by anything they may get back,
great robberies took place; and some of these afterwards came to the
ears of the King, and those who had done it were soundly chastised.

In a short time the defeat of the Ydallcao was known all over India,
and also in other regions of the interior, he being a great lord in
these parts; and as soon as the news was carried to Zemelluco and
Madremalluco and Destuy and Virido, and also to other lords who were
like slaves to the king Daquym,[564] although in some measure they
rejoiced since they wished him ill, yet on the other hand they began
to be fearful for their own safety.[565] So they all took measures
to send their envoys, and these found the King still inside the
city of Rachol. Astonished though they were to see that the King
had captured so strong a city, they were much more surprised to see
how great was his power and how numerous his troops. Having arrived
where he was they gave him the letters they had brought, and these
were forthwith read. In these the chiefs told the King that he ought
to content himself with having defeated the Ydallcao as he had done,
and ought not to wage further war; they begged him of his goodness
to return to the Ydallcao that which he had so taken from him, and
that if he did so they would always obey whatever he commanded; but
if he was not of a mind to this, then he must know for certain that
they would be compelled to turn against him and forthwith join the
Ydallcao, for whom they would speedily recover that which he had now
lost. The King, seeing what was contained in the letters, answered
them in the following manner by one single letter to them all; --
"Honoured Madremalluco, and Zemelluco, Descar, and Veride, and all
others of the kingdom of Daquym, I have seen your letters, and thank
you much for what you have sent to say. As regards the Ydallcao,
what I have done to him and taken from him he has richly deserved;
as regards returning it to him that does not seem to me reasonable,
nor am I going to do it; and as for your further statement that ye will
all turn against me in aid of him if I do not do as ye ask, I pray
you do not take the trouble to come hither, for I will myself go to
seek ye if ye dare to await me in your lands; -- and this I send you
for answer." And he commanded to give many gifts to the messengers,
and giving his letter to them sent them away.


How a number of people left the city, and the King did much kindness
to them.

Many people left the city, and to many who had nothing wherewith to
depart the king commanded to give all that was required for their
journey. Here the King stayed some days, after having made all the
arrangements that were necessary for the government of the city;
and after repairing the walls he left behind him sufficient troops
to guard the place, and took the road to the city of Bisnaga, where
he was received with great triumphs, and great feasts were made and
he bestowed bountiful rewards on his troops.

As soon as the festivals were ended he went to the new city; and,
being there, they told him how there was entered an ambassador of the
Ydallcao. Already he knew that an ambassador had come but he pretended
that he did not know, since it is not customary for the King to send
out to receive any ambassador (on his arrival). Since this ambassador
was in the city of Bisnaga, knowing that the King was in the new
city, which is two leagues from Bisnaga, he betook himself thither;
and close to the city bade the people pitch his tent, which was the
best and most beautiful and rich that up to that time had ever been
seen in those parts. This ambassador was called Matucotam; he brought
with him one hundred and fifty horse and much people to serve him and
many pack animals, among which were certain camels. He brought also
two of the scribes of the chamber of the Ydallcao, so that indeed
you would believe that he had brought all the power of the Ydallcao
"pera segumdo elle ficou desbaratado."[566]

As soon as he had thus settled himself the ambassador sent to inform
the King of his arrival, and begged that His Highness would grant
him an audience and despatch him without delay. The King replied that
he would see him,[567] but told him that he should not be impatient
since he himself had but now arrived, and that he would give him
leave to depart as soon as the time had arrived. And with this the
ambassador stayed there a month without the King having sought to see
him, nor having asked to know why he had come; he went every day to
the palace, and seeing the way in which the King acted towards him
he determined to speak no more but to wait till the King summoned
him. Still he never ceased to go every day to the palace and to speak
with the nobles. One day the King sent to tell the ambassador that
the following day was an auspicious day, and that he wished to hear
him and learn wherefore he had come, and the ambassador made ready
as it behoved him to present himself before so great a lord. As was
fitting, considering his mission and the request he had to make, he
was accompanied by many Moors whom the city contained, and had with
him all his people with their trumpets and drums as was customary;
and so he went to the palace, where he was received very honourably
by the nobles and officers of the household. They seated themselves
inside the first gate, awaiting there a message from the King giving
permission to enter where he was, and there was no long delay before
the command to admit him was given. His obeisance to the King having
been made according to his mode and custom, the men of the council
standing by the King's side, he was bidden to announce the terms
of his embassy, the King being ready graciously to listen; and the
ambassador, seeing that the King so commanded, delivered himself of
his message in manner following, with the awed demeanour assumed by
such envoys when they find themselves in presence of such great kings.


How the Captain acquitted himself of his embassy before the King.

"Sire! the Ydallcao, my master, sends me to thee; and by my mouth he
begs thee that thou wouldest be pleased to do justice. He bids me
say that he bears very good will towards thee[568] as towards the
most true and powerful prince in all the world, and one possessed,
of most justice and truth; that thou without reason hast broken the
friendship and peace which thou hast had towards him, and not only
so but a peace which was made so many years ago and maintained by all
the kings so truthfully; that he does not know why thou hast left thy
kingdom and made such war on him; that he was without suspicion when
they brought him the news how thou hadst besieged the city of Rachol,
and hadst robbed and destroyed the country round about, which news
caused him to move and come to its rescue; that then all the members of
his court were slain by thee, and his camp all plundered and destroyed,
thou thyself being good witness of what was done, and that he begs
thee to make amends therefor, and to send back to him his artillery
and tents, his horses and elephants, with the rest that was taken from
him, and also to restore his city of Rachol; that if thou wilt give him
the satisfaction for which he prays as to this property and all other
things thou wilt have him always for a loyal friend; but if not, thy
action will be evil, even though pleasing to thyself." Thus he ended,
without saying more. The King said that he might retire and repose,
and that next day he would give him leave to depart, and the King
gave him a robe of silk and the cloths that are customary.


How the King sent to call the ambassador, and of the answer which he
gave to him.

Next day the King sent to call the ambassador, and after other things
had been spoken of between[569] them, the King said that he would be
content to restore everything to the Ydallcao according to his wish,
and would be pleased at once to release Satabetacao, provided the
Ydallcao would come and kiss his foot. When the ambassador heard the
King's answer he took leave of him and went to his tent; and he wrote
to the Ydallcao and told him what had passed, sending to him one of the
scribes that had come with him. And much time had not passed when the
Ydallcao sent him a reply, saying: How could it be possible for him to
meet the King, seeing that he could not go to Bisnaga? and yet that
he was of full mind joyfully to do that which the King wished. With
this answer the ambassador went to the King, and since the King
would have set higher value on the Ydallcao's coming to kiss his feet
than on all that he had taken from him, he said to the ambassador,
"Do thou cause the Ydallcao to come to the confines of my kingdom, for
I shall be, soon there." Agreeing to this, the ambassador departed,
so as to persuade the Ydallcao to come to the boundary. The King on
his part went forthwith to a city called Mudugal[570] which is close
to the boundary, and there he waited until they told him that the
Ydallcao was coming and was already near at hand. Forthwith the King
set out to meet him, and entered the kingdom of Daquem, so desirous
was he to meet the Ydallcao; but the Ydallcao, after all, dared not
meet the King. And the King journeyed so far, whilst they kept saying
to him, "Lo! he is here close at hand," that he even went as far as
Bizapor,[571] which is the best city in all the kingdom of Daquem. It
has numbers of beautiful houses built according to our own fashion,
with many gardens and bowers made of grape-vines, and pomegranates,
and oranges and lemons, and all other kinds of garden produce.

Hither went the King, for it seemed well for him to await the coming
of the Ydallcao in so goodly a city; and he formed the determination
that if he got him here he would seize him or command him to be put to
death, to avenge the affront that had been put upon him; and seeing
that his enemy did not dare to come he remained in the city several
days. Then he turned away because water failed him; for since this
city lies in a plain and has no water save that which it receives
from rainfall into two lakes, of which there are two large ones, the
Moors had opened these in order to drain them, so that the King should
not be able to stay in their country. For this reason it behoved the
King to depart. But the city was left almost in ruins -- not that the
King had commanded it to be destroyed, but that his troops, in order
to make fires for cooking, had torn down so many houses that it was
a great grief to see -- and this was occasioned by there being in
the country a dearth of firewood, which comes to them from a great
distance. The Ydallcao sent to ask the King what wrong the houses
of his captains had done that he had commanded to destroy them; for
there remained no other houses standing save only the palaces of the
Ydallcao, the King himself being therein. The King sent answer that it
was not he who had done it, but that he could not control his people.

When the King went to the town of Modogal the Ydallcao returned to
Bigapor, where, seeing the great havoc that had been wrought in it,
he took to himself the blame for such damage having been done,[572]
saying that if he had gone to the King such destruction would not have
taken place, and that at least he could do this in future; he said that
he had been badly advised since for his own part he had been prepared
to do it. Thus he took counsel with his advisers, putting before them
how secure his position was if he had the friendship of the King,
that if allied to him he might be able to still further increase
(the greatness of) his State, and that with the King's favour he
would be able to carry out all his wishes. Concerning these things
and others similar to these he continued constantly speaking with his
advisers. Wherefore Acadacao the lord of Bilgao, he who had fled with
him in the battle, and who was a man sagacious and cunning in such
matters, addressed the Ydallcao begging permission to go himself to
the King, and saying that he would remedy everything and would cause
everything to take place just as his lord wished; and the Ydallcao
listened to him readily.

Now Acadacao did not trouble himself to make this journey because
he desired to serve the Ydallcao, for another would have done it as
well, but he did it with a villainous motive and from the ill-will
he bore to Salebatacao whom the King held in prison at Bisnaga; and
the reason that he had this wicked motive was because Salebatacao
knew that Acadacao was the man that had caused the Ydallcao to
flee, and that the cowardice of such an act was enough to destroy
an army. Salebatacao had spoken angrily about this to all those who
went to see him or who were sent to visit him, and he always said
that he did not desire to be released from his captivity save for one
reason only, namely that he might ruin Acadacao and war against him as
against a mortal enemy. These things were all known to Acadacao, and he
knew that if they released him it would come to pass as he had said,
and therefore he determined to prevent this by contriving his enemy's
death, as will be mentioned in its place. It was for this reason that
Acadacao asked to be sent as ambassador to the King; and this was done.


How Acadacao went as ambassador for his King and compassed the death
of Sallabatecao.

Acadacao, being despatched by the Ydallcao, accompanied by certain
horsemen with some servants took the road to the city of Mudogal where
the King was, and the Ydallcao went with him as far as the river. When
Acadacao had arrived, being allowed inside the city by command of
the King, he remained several days without seeing the King until he
was summoned by his order; then he was admitted and spoke with the
King, giving him, with the manner of one who in such negotiations is
both wise and bold, an excuse for the mistake which the Ydallcao had
committed. He knew how to speak to the King so well that he removed
all the King's wrath and fury against the Ydallcao, and he told the
King that the principal cause why the Ydallcao did not meet him was
the conduct of Salebatacao whom he had captured, and that this man
had written to the Ydallcao telling him not to do so, and giving for
reason that the King desired to slay him. By these and other similar
sayings he sought to set the King's mind against Salebatacao, even to
the death, and the King, seeing what Acadacao wanted, and believing
that a man of such great fame would not be guilty of saying anything
that was not perfectly true, angrily commanded that Salebatacao,
who was then in Bisnaga, should be beheaded; and this was at once
done as soon as the message arrived.

As soon as Acadacao had accomplished this business he thought himself
unsafe, and at once asked leave of the King, saying that he wished
to go and get the Ydallcao to come to the river, so that when His
Highness arrived he might meet him there. But the King told him not to
be impatient but to amuse himself there some days, and added that he
wished to show him some things, and that he had somewhat about which
to speak to him. Acadacao, however, being afraid that his treason
would be discovered, did not feel safe, and behaved in such a manner
that what he had done concerning Salebatacao was found out; wherefore
the King sent to seize him, but when they went to look for him he was
already gone. For he fled one night and betook himself to the Ydalcao,
telling him that the King had commanded Salebatacao to be put to death,
and that he wanted to do the same to him, and so he had escaped; and
it seemed to him that he (the Ydalcao) ought not to trust the King,
who after all was nothing but a black. After he had spoken in this
way he went to Bilgao, where he strengthened his position, and when
the Ydallcao sent afterwards to summon him he never obeyed, because
he knew that the wickedness that he had done had been found out.


How the King went to the extremity of his territory to meet the
Ydalcao, and what he did on not finding him.

The King did not fail to go to the extremity of his territory, and
since he did not find the Ydalcao there, nor his mother, as Acadacao
had told him, he at once perceived that this was due to trickery
on the part of Acadacao, and that he had done it all in order to
compass the death of Salebatacao. Full of fury at this he entered
the kingdom of Daquem and marched against the city of Culbergura[573]
and destroyed it and razed the fortress to the ground, and the same
with many other places.

Thence he wanted to press forward, but his councillors did not agree
to this, saying that water would fail him by that road and that it
did not seem to them that those Moorish lords whom they counted as
friends would be otherwise than afraid that the King would take their
lands as he had taken those of the others, since they all served one
sovereign, and that for this reason these lords would probably make
friends with the Ydalcao, and together they would come against the
King; and although there was no reason to be afraid of them, yet the
King must needs fear the want of water, of which they had none. And
the King agreed that this counsel was good.

In this city of Calbergara, in the fortress belonging to it, the King
took three sons of the King of Daquem. He made the eldest King of the
kingdom of Daquem, his father being dead, though the Ydallcao wanted
to make King one of his brothers-in-law, who was a bastard son of
the King of Daquem, and had married one of the Ydallcao's sisters;
for this reason he had kept these three brothers prisoners in that
fortress. He whom he thus made King was received by all the realm as
such, and obeyed by all the great lords, and even by the Ydallcao owing
to his fear of the King.[574] The other two brothers he took with him,
and gave them each one an allowance, to each one every year fifty
thousand gold PARDAOS; and he holds them and treats them as princes
and great lords, as indeed they are. After the return of the King
to Bisnaga, which took place in the same year in which he had left,
nothing more passed between him and the Ydalcao worthy of record,
relating either to peace or war.


How this King, during his own lifetime, raised to be King his son,
being of the age of six years.

After the King had made an end of this, and had obtained so great a
victory over his enemies, perceiving that he was already advanced in
years, desiring to rest in his old age and wishing his son to become
King when he died, he determined to make him King during his lifetime,
the boy being six years old and the King not knowing what would happen
after his death. Wherefore he abdicated his throne and all his power
and name, and gave it all to his son, and himself became his minister,
and Salvatinica[575] who had held that office became his counsellor,
and he made one of the latter's sons a great lord among them. And so
far did King Crisnarao go that after he had given the kingdom to his
son, he himself did obeisance to him. With these changes the King
made great festivals which lasted eight months, during which time
the son of the King fell sick of a disease of which he died.

After his death Crisnarao learned that his son had died by poison given
him by the son of Sallvatinica, and in his anger, being certain that
this was so, he sent to call Salvatinica and his son and Guandaja,
brother of Ssallvatinica, and many other captains relatives of
Ssallvatinica, and made them a speech at the time of the salaam,
there being present many chiefs and principal persons of the kingdom,
and relations of Ssallvatinica; he addressed him thus: -- "I held thee
always as my great friend, and now for these forty years thou hast
been governor in this kingdom, which thou gavest me; yet I am under
no obligation to thee for that, because in doing so thou didst act
in a way contrary to thy duty. Thou wert bound, since thy lord the
King my brother commanded so, to put out mine eyes; yet thou didst
not carry out his will nor obey him, but instead thou didst cheat
him and the eyes of a goat were put out, wherefore, since thou didst
not fulfil his command, thou wert a traitor, and thy sons with thee
for whom I have done so much. Now I have learnt that my son died of
poison given to him by thee and thy sons, and for that ye are all here
made prisoners." With these words he arose and laid hands on them and
seized them, and in doing so called for aid from many Portuguese who
were then in the country with horses, asking them to come to his aid;
and after he had seized the men, father and sons, they remained three
years in prison. And he made minister a son of Codemerade, the same
who had killed the son of King Narsymga in the city of Penagundy in
the garden by treachery, by command of the King his father, as has
already been told in this history.[576]

And soon afterwards Danayque, son of Salvatinica, escaped from prison
and betook himself to a mountain range in which dwelt nobody but
robbers and highwaymen, and in this there was a fortress where dwelt
a captain, his relative, who received him and helped him in all that
he could, and from there he made such war on the King Crisnarao that
he was driven to send against him much people, and as captain of the
army he sent his minister Ajaboissa, who invested the place on all
sides and took him therein and brought him prisoner to the King. After
he had so come the King commanded him to be brought before him, with
Sallvatinica his father and another brother of his who was kept in
the prison, and he sent them to the place of executions and there had
their eyes put out, for in this country they do not put Brahmans to
death but only inflict some punishment so that they remain alive. So he
put them in prison again, and there Timadanayque died, and Salvatinica
his father remained in the prison with his other son Gamdarja.[577]


How the Ydallcao came against Rachol, and did not dare to await the
King, and fled.

At this time the Ydallcao collected his army and formed afresh
his forces of cavalry and elephants, and marched upon Rachol which
remained under the king of Bisnaga. Hearing this news, Crisnarao,
without even telling any one, ordered to saddle a horse, and he rode
at full speed in the direction of Rachol where already the Ydallcao
was; but as soon as his enemy was aware of the coming of the King
he fled. On the road King Crisnarao bought six hundred horses from
the Portuguese at the rate of 4 3/4 for 1000 pardaos.[578] And from
Rachol he sent a message to the Ydallcao saying that he had already
twice broken his oath and his word, and that as he had not fulfilled
the promise he had made he would make war on him in such fashion as
that by force he should become his vassal, and that he would not let
him alone till he had taken from him Billgao.[579]

As the winter had now begun the King could not then go forward, and
so he went to Bisnaga to make ready for this war; and he commanded to
prepare a large force of artillery, and sent an ambassador to Goa to
ask for the help of the Governor. He promised him that after taking
Billgao he would give him the mainland; for this city of Billgao is
fifteen leagues from Goa, and its captain is lord of the mainland
of Goa. Goa is the frontier or boundary of his city of Billgao,
and there is one of his captains at a fortress called Pomda which
is three leagues from Goa by the mainland, who also receives the
revenues and has command over several villages; and in like manner
these and others have captains appointed by the Ydalcao, who is lord
of the whole land.[580]

While Crisnarao was thus making ready he presently fell sick of the
same illness of which all his ancestors had died, with pains in the
groin, of which die all the kings of Bisnaga.

Now this King Crisnarao, when he was young and growing up in this
city of Bisnaga, had an intrigue with a courtezan for whom he had
much affection, and who was called Chinadevidy, and for the great
love he bore her he promised many times that if ever he became King
he would marry her; and though he said this in jest, it afterwards
became true, so the history records. For when raised to the throne
and taken away from the things he had done when a young man, he still
did not forget the affection he felt for this woman, but used secretly
to leave his palace and go to her house. And this was discovered one
night by his minister Sallvatinica, who watched him until he had got
into the woman's house, and he rebuked him much for it and brought
him back to the palace. Then the King told him how well he loved her,
and that he had promised to marry this woman and was determined to
do so in any case; and the minister, seeing how he was bent on it,
gave way to his wish, saying that he would accomplish it in such
a way that His Highness would not be blamed for it. In order to do
this he sought for him a very beautiful woman of the family of the
kings of Narsymga, and after he had married him to her, at the end of
the wedding ceremonies, he put this woman and the other in a house,
to which he had added a tower very lofty and large, and in which he
lodged her. Afterwards the King married many other wives, for these
kings hold it as a very honourable thing to have many wives; and
this King Crisnarao married four, and yet he loved this one better
than any of the others. This King built a city in honour of this
woman, for the love he bore her, and called its name Nagallapor and
surrounded it with a new wall which is one of the best works that he
has in his kingdom, and he made in it a street very long and large
with houses all of masonry. In order to people this town he ordered
all the chiefs of his kingdom to build themselves palaces therein,
and so they did. This town has one principal street, of length
four thousand and seven hundred paces[581] and of breadth forty,
which is certainly the most beautiful street it is possible to see;
and he made and finished this town without stinting any expense on
it. It now yields forty-two thousand PARDAOS of duties for things
which enter into it, the duties in this land being very great; since
nothing comes through the gates that does not pay duty, even men and
women, as well as head-loads and all merchandise.

This King also made in his time a lake for water, which lies between
two very lofty SERRAS. But since he had no means in the country for
making it, nor any one who could do it, he sent to Goa to ask the
Governor to send some Portuguese masons, and the Governor sent him
Joao della Ponte,[582] a great worker in stone, to whom the King told
how he wanted the tank built. Though it seemed to this man (MESTRE,
modern MAISTRY) impossible to be made, nevertheless he told the King
he would do it and asked him to have lime prepared, at which the
King laughed much, for in his country when they build a house they
do not understand how to use lime. The King commanded to throw down
quantities of stone and cast down many great rocks into the valley,
but everything fell to pieces, so that all the work done in the day
was destroyed each night, and the King, amazed at this, sent to
call his wise men and sorcerers and asked them what they thought
of this thing. They told him that his idols were not pleased with
this work, it being so great and he giving them nothing, and that
unless he spilled there the blood of men or women or buffaloes that
work would never be finished. So the King sent to bring hither all
the men who were his prisoners, and who deserved death, and ordered
them there to be beheaded; and with this the work advanced. He made
a bank across the middle of the valley so lofty and wide that it was
a crossbow-shot in breadth and length, and had large openings;[583]
and below it he put pipes by which the water escaped, and when they
wish so to do they close these. By means of this water they made many
improvements in the city, and many channels by which they irrigated
rice-fields and gardens, and in order that they might improve their
lands he gave the people the lands which are irrigated by this water
free for nine years,[584] until they had made their improvements,
so that the revenue already amounts to 20,000 PARDAOS.

Above this tank is a very large ridge all enclosed, and in the middle
some very strong gates with two towers, one on one side and one on
the other; and within are always posted 1000 men on guard. For through
this gate all things must enter that come into the two cities, since
in order to enter the city of Bisnaga there is no other road but this,
all other roads meeting there. This gate is rented out for 12,000
PARDAOS each year, and no man can enter it without paying just what the
renters ask, country folk as well as strangers. In both these cities
there is no provision or merchandise whatever,[585] for all comes from
outside on pack-oxen, since in this country they always use beasts
for burdens;[586] and every day there enter by these gates 2000 oxen,
and every one of these pays three VINTEES,[587] except certain polled
oxen without horns, which never pay anything in any part of the realm.

Outside these two cities are fields and places richly cultivated with
wheat and gram and rice and millet, for this last is the grain which
is most consumed in the land; and next to it betel (BETRE), which is
a thing that in the greater part of the country they always eat and
carry in the mouth.


How on the death of Crisnarao his brother Achetarao was raised to
be king.

Before[588] the death of King Crisnarao from his disease as has been
before recounted, being sick and already despairing of his life, he
made a will, saying that of his three brothers whom, at the time when
they raised him to be King, he had sent to be confined in the fortress
of Chamdegary[589] with his nephew, son of the King Busbalrao,[590]
they should make King his brother Achetarao[591] who now reigns;
for the latter seemed to him to be better fitted for that than any
of the others, for the reason that he himself had no son of fit age
for the throne, but only one of the age of eighteen months. After his
death Salvanay became minister of the kingdom, and governed it till
the coming of King Achitarao from the fortress of Chamdegary where
he was detained. And he further left in his will that he should take
Billgao,[592] and should make war on the Ydallcao.

Which King Chytarao, after he ascended the throne, gave himself over to
vice and tyranny. He is a man of very little honesty, and on account of
this the people and the captains are much discontented with his evil
life and inclinations; for he has never done anything except those
things that are desired by his two brothers-in-law,[593] who are men
very evilly disposed and great Jews. By reason of this the Ydalcao,
learning of how little weight he was, determined to make war on him,
believing that he would easily succeed since the King was not inclined
to war; so he made his forces ready, and began to invade the King's
territory, and arrived within a league of the city of Bisnaga. Chetarao
was in the city with such great forces and power that he could easily
have captured him if his heart had allowed him to take action, since
the Ydallcao had with him only 12,000 foot and 30,000 horse; yet
with this small force the Ydallcao entered Nagallapor a league from
Bisnaga and razed it to the ground. The King never tried to go out
against him, nor had he the stomach for a fight, and there were only
small skirmishes by some captains, good horsemen. These spoke to the
King, asking that His Highness would give them leave to attack, and
saying that his own presence was unnecessary for so slight an affair;
but the King was terrified, and by the advice of his brothers-in-law
(of which they gave not a little) decided to send and make peace with
the Ydallcao. The Ydallcao was very glad and made a peace with him
which was to last for a hundred years, on condition that the King
should give him ten LAKHS of gold PARDAOS, each LAKH being 100,000
PARDAOS, and further should yield up to him the city of Rachol which
the King Crisnarao had taken from him, and which had a revenue with
its lands of 150,000 PARDAOS, as well as jewels which could easily
be valued at a LAKH. The King accepted these terms, and the Ydallcao
departed well pleased with this money; and after all was done the
King sent to him a diamond stone weighing 130 MANGELLINIS,[594]
with fifteen other similar ones worth fully a LAKH. This money he
soon afterwards recovered and put in his treasury, exacting payments
from his captains and people so ruthlessly that they say that in six
months he had recovered and put the whole in his treasury.

Wherefore the captains and troops, both because he made this peace
and because he exacted this sum of money contrary to the wishes of
them all, have lived greatly discontented, and have held that if this
kingdom should ever be brought to destruction, it must take place in
the lifetime of King Chitarao; for he had destroyed the principal
people of his kingdom and killed their sons and taken their goods,
all owing to the bad counsel of his brothers-in-law, by whom he
was dominated.

I will tell you of one who was called Crisnaranarque whom he seized
one night, and who, before he surrendered himself, killed all his
wives, in number two hundred, and then killed himself with poison in
presence of the King. This was because the King wanted to kill his son
in his presence. By sale of the captain's arms, namely daggers, swords,
spears, battle-axes and other things, which were all ornamented with
gold and silver, the King realised more than 3000 PARDAOS. In this way
the kingdom has been deprived of its principal men and of those who
sustain it, wherefore the Ydalcao holds it in so little esteem that he
puts upon it every day a thousand affronts and requisitions. Of this
King there is nothing more so far to recount, save that he is a man
that they hold to be of little force of character, and very negligent
of the things which most concern the welfare of his kingdom and State.

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